Kings of Scotland

 

Descendants of Walter Stewart

 

 

Generation No. 1

 

1.  WALTER1 STEWART was born Abt. 1296, and died 9 April 1327 in Bathgate Castle,.  He married MARJORIE BRUCE. 

 

More About WALTER STEWART:

Notability: Sixth Hereditry High Steward of Scotland

       

Child of WALTER STEWART and MARJORIE BRUCE is:

2.                i.    ROBERT II KING OF2 SCOTLAND.

 

 

Generation No. 2

 

2.  ROBERT II KING OF2 SCOTLAND (WALTER1 STEWART)  He married ELIZABETH MURE. 

 

Notes for ROBERT II KING OF SCOTLAND:

became King of Scots in 1371 as the first monarch of the House of Stewart

       

Child of ROBERT SCOTLAND and ELIZABETH MURE is:

3.                i.    ROBERT III KING OF3 SCOTLAND, b. 14 August 1337; d. April 1406.

 

 

Generation No. 3

 

3.  ROBERT III KING OF3 SCOTLAND (ROBERT II KING OF2, WALTER1 STEWART) was born 14 August 1337, and died April 1406.  He married ANNABELLA DRUMMOND1. 

       

Child of ROBERT SCOTLAND and ANNABELLA DRUMMOND is:

4.                i.    JAMES I KING OF4 SCOTLAND, b. July 1394; d. 21 February 1436/37, Assassinated.

 

 

Generation No. 4

 

4.  JAMES I KING OF4 SCOTLAND (ROBERT III KING OF3, ROBERT II KING OF2, WALTER1 STEWART) was born July 1394, and died 21 February 1436/37 in Assassinated.  He married JOAN BEAUFORT. 

       

Child of JAMES SCOTLAND and JOAN BEAUFORT is:

5.                i.    JAMES II OF5 SCOTLAND.

 

 

Generation No. 5

 

5.  JAMES II OF5 SCOTLAND (JAMES I KING OF4, ROBERT III KING OF3, ROBERT II KING OF2, WALTER1 STEWART)2.  He married MARY OF GUELDERS2. 

       

Child of JAMES SCOTLAND and MARY GUELDERS is:

6.                i.    JAMES III OF6 SCOTLAND, b. 10 July 1451; d. 11 June 1488.

 

 

Generation No. 6

 

6.  JAMES III OF6 SCOTLAND (JAMES II OF5, JAMES I KING OF4, ROBERT III KING OF3, ROBERT II KING OF2, WALTER1 STEWART)2,3 was born 10 July 14513, and died 11 June 14883.  He married MARGARET OF DENMARK. 

 

Notes for JAMES III OF SCOTLAND:

"James III (10 July 1451 - 11 June 1488) was King of Scots from 1460 to 1488. James was an unpopular and ineffective monarch owing to an unwillingness to administer justice fairly, a policy of pursuing alliance with the Kingdom of England, and a disastrous relationship with nearly all his extended family.

 

His reputation as the first Renaissance monarch in Scotland has sometimes been exaggerated, based on attacks on him in later chronicles for being more interested in such unmanly pursuits as music than hunting, riding and leading his kingdom into war. In fact, the artistic legacy of his reign is slight, especially when compared to that of his successors, James IV and James V."

 

       

Child of JAMES SCOTLAND and MARGARET DENMARK is:

7.                i.    JAMES IV OF7 SCOTLAND, b. 17 March 1472/73, Stirling Castle, Stirling, Scotland.

 

 

Generation No. 7

 

7.  JAMES IV OF7 SCOTLAND (JAMES III OF6, JAMES II OF5, JAMES I KING OF4, ROBERT III KING OF3, ROBERT II KING OF2, WALTER1 STEWART)4 was born 17 March 1472/73 in Stirling Castle, Stirling, Scotland5.  He married MARGARET TUDOR, daughter of HENRY VII. 

 

Notes for JAMES IV OF SCOTLAND:

"James took the throne on 11 June 1488. He was considered a successful monarch who did much to advance learning and culture. He was particularly skilled as a linguist, speaking no less than six languages, including Gaelic.

 

The Renaissance Court of King James IV was home to Scots Makars including William Dunbar, Walter Kennedy and Gavin Douglas. The Makars were master poets. They wrote and performed poems for the court and the nobility, and enjoyed literary battles called 'flytings'.

 

Dunbar celebrated the marriage of James IV and Margaret Tudor in 1503 in his poem 'The Thrissill and the Rois' - 'The Thistle and the Rose'. Margaret Tudor was a sister of King Henry VIII of England - so the Scots thistle married the English rose.

 

...The merle scho sang, 'Haill, Roiss of most delyt,

Haill, of all flouris quene and soverane;'

The lark scho song, 'Haill, Rois, both reid and quhyt,

Most plesand flour, of michty cullouris twane;'

The nychtingaill song, 'Haill, naturis suffragene,

In bewty, nurtour and every nobilness,

In riche array, renown, and gentilness.'...

 

William Dunbar, 'The Thrissill and the Rois' (extract), 1503

 

James IV and Margaret Tudor produced six children. He also had five illegitimate children.

 

James ruled until his death at the Battle of Flodden Field on 9 September 1513. James IV was the last Scottish King to be killed in battle. It was Margaret's royal blood that would pave the way for the Union of the Crowns in 1603.

 

 

 

The Renaissance Court of King James IV was home to Scots Makars including William Dunbar, Walter Kennedy and Gavin Douglas. The Makars were master poets. They wrote and performed poems for the court and the nobility, and enjoyed literary battles called 'flytings'.

 

Dunbar celebrated the marriage of James IV and Margaret Tudor in 1503 in his poem 'The Thrissill and the Rois' - 'The Thistle and the Rose'. Margaret Tudor was a sister of King Henry VIII of England - so the Scots thistle married the English rose.

 

...The merle scho sang, 'Haill, Roiss of most delyt,

Haill, of all flouris quene and soverane;'

The lark scho song, 'Haill, Rois, both reid and quhyt,

Most plesand flour, of michty cullouris twane;'

The nychtingaill song, 'Haill, naturis suffragene,

In bewty, nurtour and every nobilness,

In riche array, renown, and gentilness.'...

 

William Dunbar, 'The Thrissill and the Rois' (extract), 1503

 

James IV and Margaret Tudor produced six children. He also had five illegitimate children.

 

James ruled until his death at the Battle of Flodden Field on 9 September 1513. James IV was the last Scottish King to be killed in battle. It was Margaret's royal blood that would pave the way for the Union of the Crowns in 1603."

 

       

Child of JAMES SCOTLAND and MARGARET TUDOR is:

8.                i.    JAMES V OF8 SCOTLAND, b. 10 April 1512; d. 14 December 1542.

 

 

Generation No. 8

 

8.  JAMES V OF8 SCOTLAND (JAMES IV OF7, JAMES III OF6, JAMES II OF5, JAMES I KING OF4, ROBERT III KING OF3, ROBERT II KING OF2, WALTER1 STEWART)6 was born 10 April 15127, and died 14 December 15427.  He married MARY OF GUISE.  She was born 22 November 1515 in Bar-Le-Duc, France8, and died 11 June 1560 in Edinburgh Castle, Scotland8.

 

Notes for JAMES V OF SCOTLAND:

"After his first French wife (Madeleine of Valois) died, James V planned a second marriage to cement the renewed Auld Alliance. He chose Marie de Guise - a widow with two sons from a brief but happy marriage.

 

While James V was negotiating for Marie's hand he had to contend with competition from his uncle, Henry VIII of England. Henry was looking for another wife - he had divorced his first wife Catherine of Aragon, beheaded his second wife Anne Boleyn, and his third wife, Jane Seymour, had died just after giving birth.

 

Henry's record of failed marriages meant that Marie's father refused him and accepted James. Marie de Guise was initially unwilling but relented when James wrote to her directly.

 

Marie and James had two sons who both died, and one daughter, Mary I (Mary Queen of Scots). Marie de Guise was appointed Regent in 1554, taking over from James Hamilton, 2nd Earl of Arran.

 

Marie de Guise was Catholic. The rise of the Scottish Protestants threatened her position. When she called on her family in France for help this was seen as proof that she was not loyal to Scotland. She was deposed as regent in 1559."

 

       

Child of JAMES SCOTLAND and MARY GUISE is:

9.                i.    MARY QUEEN OF9 SCOTS.

 

 

Generation No. 9

 

9.  MARY QUEEN OF9 SCOTS (JAMES V OF8 SCOTLAND, JAMES IV OF7, JAMES III OF6, JAMES II OF5, JAMES I KING OF4, ROBERT III KING OF3, ROBERT II KING OF2, WALTER1 STEWART)9.  She married (1) DAUPHIN OF FRANCE Bef. 1564.    She married (2) HENRY STUART, LORD DARNLEY 1565.  He was born 7 December 1545 in Temple Newsam, Leeds, West Yorkshire, England, and died 1567 in Murdered.

 

Notes for MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS:

"Mary, Queen of Scots, was barely one week old when she succeeded to the throne in 1542. The murder 25 years later of Henry Lord Darnley, her consort and the father of the infant who would become King James I of England and James VI of Scotland, remains one of history's most notorious unsolved crimes. On a Sunday morning in February 1567 Darnley lay sleeping on the upper floor of an Edinburgh house known as Kirk o' Field. For weeks he had rested there, convalescing from either smallpox or syphilis. Across the city Queen Mary and the baby prince were safely ensconced at Holyrood House. Unknown to Darnley and perhaps unknown to Mary, miscreants had for some time been packing the cellars of Kirk o' Field with enough gunpowder to blow the structure to smithereens. Around two am the building exploded, a blast heard and felt throughout Edinburgh.

 

According to Scottish historian Magnus Magnusson, nothing was left of the building, but in an adjoining garden beside a pear tree, townsmen found Darnley's nightgown-clad corpse. Curiously, he appeared not to have been killed by the explosion but by strangulation. Magnusson speculates that Darnley had tried to escape just before the blast but had been intercepted by his murderer before he could flee.

 

Complying with royal protocol, Queen Mary observed 40 days of official mourning for her husband. But rumours circulated that Mary's widow weeds were woven discordantly with threads of insincerity. With Darnley's death she had, in fact, become a widow for the second time. If her two-year marriage to Darnley had been brief, so too was her earlier marriage to the Dauphin of France, a union that lasted two and a half years before the Dauphin, who had become King Francis II upon his father's death in 1559, died at age 16 from complications of an ear infection.

 

Mary was 18 when she returned to her homeland from France, her youthfulness belying the royal ambition that consumed her. If, when shipped off to France some years earlier, she had been nothing more than an innocent political pawn in the game of royal power grabbing, she returned with her own shrewd agenda for Scotland."

 

More About HENRY STUART, LORD DARNLEY:

Royalty: Bet. 1565 - 1567, King Consort of Scotland

       

Child of MARY SCOTS and HENRY STUART is:

10.              i.    JAMES CHARLES10 STUART, b. 19 June 1566, Edinburgh Castle, Scotland; d. 27 March 1625, Herefordshire, England.

 

 

Generation No. 10

 

10.  JAMES CHARLES10 STUART (MARY QUEEN OF9 SCOTS, JAMES V OF8 SCOTLAND, JAMES IV OF7, JAMES III OF6, JAMES II OF5, JAMES I KING OF4, ROBERT III KING OF3, ROBERT II KING OF2, WALTER1 STEWART)10 was born 19 June 1566 in Edinburgh Castle, Scotland11,12, and died 27 March 1625 in Herefordshire, England.  He married ANNE OF DENMARK13.  She was born 1574, and died 1619.

 

Notes for JAMES CHARLES STUART:

James VI & I.

 

"James Charles Stuart was born on June 19, 1566 at Edinburg Castle in Scotland. His father, Lord Darnley, was murdered in early 1567 before young James was 1 year old. His mother, Mary Queen of Scots, was soon afterwards forced to abdicate the Scottish throne due to her suspected involvement in the murder. Little James was crowned King James VI of Scotland at the tender age of 13 months. Reformation leader John Knox preached the sermon at his coronation.

 

James' mother, Mary, was imprisoned in England by her cousin Queen Elizabeth and 19 years later, in February of 1587, was executed for her part in a Roman Catholic conspiracy to assassinate Queen Elizabeth.

 

And so, like many monarchs of the time, King James was reared by neither father nor mother (although he did maintain an ongoing correspondence with his mother. He said that she never tried to convert him to her religion.). Of his four tutors, perhaps one of the most influential was George Buchanan, a staunch Calvinist. It was under Mr. Buchanan's strict teaching methods that King James became one of the most learned and intellectually curious men to ever sit on any throne. Mr. Buchanan was 64 years old when he began tutoring the young king.

 

It was Greek before breakfast then Latin and history, composition, arithmetic cosmography, dialectics, rhetoric and of course, theology. King James spoke fluent Greek, Latin, French, English, and Scots and was schooled in Italian and Spanish. The King once remarked, that he could speak Latin before he could speak his native Scots. Because of his linguistic capabilities, King James typically did not need a translator when conducting business with other heads of state.

 

The stiff intellectual diet from George Buchanan was absorbed by a young boy who grew into a powerful man with a powerful pen. The Cambridge University press notes that the King's writings were among the most important and influential British writings of their period."

 

The Union of the Crowns in 1603 when James VI, King of Scotland became James I of England saw a long period of constitutional chaos and England was engufed in civil war. "Religious tensions, issues about the role of the monarchy and relations with England posed major problems through the 17th century. The Revolution Settlement of 1689-90 which banished James VII and replaced him on the throne with his daughter Queen Mary and her husband, the unswervingly Protestant Willion of Orange, established Presbyterianism as the national relion of Scotland but did not resolve matters.  The Scottish parliament had taken on new powers which seemed to threaten the secuity of England and posed questions as to the future of the shared monarchy of the two nations.  Eidence of the new power of the parliament were to be found in the decision to establish a trading colony at Darien on the isthmus of Panama." Also historically known as the Isthmus of Darien.   An isthmus is from Ancient Greek meaning neck, it  is a narrow strip of land connecting two larger land areas, usually with water on either side.

 

Canals are often built across isthmuses, where they may be a particularly advantageous short cut for marine transport. The Panama Canal crosses the Isthmus of Panama, connecting the North Atlantic and Pacific Oceans; the Suez Canal connects the Mediterranean Sea and the Indian Ocean, cutting across the western side of an isthmus formed by the Sinai Peninsula. An example in the United Kingdom is the Crinan Canal, which crosses the isthmus between Loch Crinan and Loch Gilp which connects the Kintyre peninsula with the rest of Scotland

 it's a narrow strip of land that lies between the Carribean Sea and the Pacific Ocean."

 

It began as an ambitious scheme to establish a Scottish colony in Panama, but ended in loss of life and financial ruin. So what really happened during the Darien Venture?

 

"Scotland at the end of the Seventeenth Century was in a state of crisis. Decades of warfare had combined with seven years of famine to drive people from their homesteads and choke the cities with homeless vagrants, starving to death in the streets. The nation's trade had been crippled by England's continual wars against continental Europe, and its home-grown industries were withering on the vine. Something had to be done. Some way had to be found to revive Scotland's economic fortunes before it got swallowed up by its much richer neighbour south of the border.

 

The man who came up with the answer was a financial adventurer called William Paterson, a Scot who had made his name down south as one of the founding directors of the Bank of England. Paterson returned to Edinburgh with an audacious scheme to turn Scotland into the major broker of trade across the Pacific Ocean. Whilst in London, he had met a sailor called Lionel Wafer, who had told him about a wonderful paradise on the Isthmus of Panama, with a sheltered bay, friendly Indians and rich, fertile land - a place called Darien.

 

Paterson had immediately seen the potential of Darien as the location of a trading colony. Trade with the incredibly lucrative Pacific markets was a hugely expensive business, since all merchant ships had to make the hazardous trip round Cape Horn on the southern tip of South America. This added months to the journey, and the ships involved had a high chance of being lost at sea. If a colony could be established at Darien, goods could be ferried from the Pacific across Panama and loaded onto ships in the Atlantic from there, speeding up Pacific trade and making it much more reliable. Moreover, the Scottish directors of the Darien Venture could charge a nice fat commission for the privilege. Never mind that the Spanish claimed control of that part of Panama: no-one ever made a profit without stepping on some toes.

 

"The idea proved hugely popular, and there was a great rush to subscribe to the Company of Scotland Trading to Africa and the Indies, founded in June 1695; but it was not just the Spanish who felt threatened by it. The English East India Company, fearing the loss of its monopoly on British trade to the Indies, successfully lobbied the English Parliament, which threatened the new company with impeachment, forcing its English investors to withdraw.

 

Undaunted, Paterson and his colleagues turned to the Scottish people for support. Thousands of Scots, both rich and poor, flocked to subscribe, and within 6 months £400,000 had been raised. The money was used to fit out five ships for the expedition, the Unicorn, St Andrew, Caledonia, Endeavour and Dolphin, despite efforts by the English authorities to block them. The English ambassador to Holland even threatened to embargo any merchants who traded with the new company.

 

    Thousands of Scots, both rich and poor, flocked to subscribe...

 

However, Lionel Wafer's stories of long-haired Indians living a life of luxury in a land of milk and honey had given the company's founders an unrealistic vision of what lay ahead. The cargo manifests of the first expedition list thousands of combs and mirrors, which they expected to sell to the Indians, along with boxes of wigs and other useless items which the colonists expected to use in their new life. They were completely unprepared for the ordeal which lay ahead."

 

"hips were bought, built or chartered in Holland and Hamburg, and the Company's warehouses at Leith and Glasgow were slowly filled with a bizarre collection of goods which, it was confidently believed, could be exchanged for the spices, silks and gold of the Orient. All men south of the Highlands wished to share in the glory and the rewards, offering their purses or their sons as an investment. Alexander Kinnaird (last Laird of Culbin) was so encouraged by the fires of his son's (William) enthusiasm, that he decided to go with him. When William was appointed an ensign in Capt. John Telfer's Company, Alexander secured an overseer's commission for himself. It may be that, in sharing his son's life, he hoped to restore a tarnished name and a broken fortune.

 

'Darien', said Paterson, would be the 'door of the seas, the key of the universe', reducing by half the time and expense of navigation to China and Japan, and bringing peace to both oceans without the guilt of war. This wondrous scheme was premature, not impossible, and two centuries later men would realize part of it by cutting the cord of the Isthmus with a canal.

 

In July, 1698, five ships left Leith upon a great wave of emotion. They sailed north about and down the Atlantic, made a landfall off the coast of Darien in November, and claimed it as the Colony of Caledonia. Many of the colonists were already dead from flux and fever, and their leaders were inefficient and quarrelsome. The splendid harbour chosen was a trap for vessels that could not sail to windward. Ambition, pride and envy, aggravated by ignorant stupidity, destroyed the spirit of those who survived the killing fevers. Paterson's wife died within a few days of the landing, and he went slowly out of his mind with despair. The town of New Edinburgh was never more than a few palmetto huts, and the ramparts of Fort St Andrew were washed away by the pitiless rain. The Spaniards' claim to Darien had been acknowledged by William and the English government, but their attempt to retake it was repulsed by the Scots in a little jungle skirmish. When the English colonies of America and the Caribbean were ordered to give no help to Caledonia, the survivors lost their courage and abandoned the huts, the fort and the bay. Relief ships from the Forth were welcomed by four hundred lonely graves. Despite the bitterness of famine, and the shortage of money and supplies, Scotland had assembled another expedition of four ships, and it was already at sea before the failure of the first was known. It reached Caledonia in November, 1699, and found only a 'vast, howling wilderness', but the huts were rebuilt and the fort reoccupied. From the beginning there was jealousy and disunity, fever, desertion and mutiny, and the ministers sent by the General Assembly violently abused the sick and dying for their 'atheistical cursing and swearing, brutish drunkenness and detestable mockery'. Once again the Spaniards attacked, and were once again thrown back in the green wet mist of the jungle. When they blockaded the colony by sea and land, advanced their guns and trenches to the rotting ramparts of the fort, the Scots resisted bravely for a month and then surrendered.

 

On April 12, 1700, Caledonia was finally abandoned to the Spanish. In the first week of May, three ships sighted the hills of Jamaica. Two hundred and fifty souls had died on this voyage to Jamaica. In the following two months, with little relief and no credit, another hundred died. These included '....The Laird of Culbin, Sir Alexander, and his son Ensign William Kinnaird'. Another source stated that Alexander did indeed die on this Darien expedition, but that his son actually reached America, never to return to Culbin.

 

The Darien venture was perhaps the worst disaster in Scotland's history, greater than the bloody defeats of Flodden and Dunbar and Worcester. There had been no glory, no valour, and few nations can withstand the terrible loss of pride and money. Its exchequer and storehouses were empty, and its challenge to the mercantile power of England was now a mockery. Nine ships which the Company had bought or chartered were sunk, burnt or abandoned. A call had been made upon three-quarters of the subscribed capital, and it was all lost. Only three hundred of the colonists, soldiers and seamen returned to Scotland. Two thousand men, women and children had been sacrificed to a national hubris, drowned at sea, buried in the foetid earth of Darien, abandoned in Spanish prisons, or lost for ever as indentured servants in English colonies. The anger of the people was intense, and was not reduced when the King said that their colony had been a threat to peace. Nor was his promise to promote their trade, to repair their losses if possible, more than bitter comfort. Few men blamed the failure of the colony upon the stupidity of its location, the contentious inefficiency of its leaders, or the blind ignorance of its promoters. English treachery was responsible. Great men who knew this to be false, or at least an exaggeration, publicly agreed rather than challenge the outraged emotions of the nation. Five years after the capitulation of Fort St Andrew, the Privy Council submitted to a violent mob outside the locked doors of Parliament House and agreed to the hanging of the captain, the mate and the gunner of the English merchantman Worcester. The charge of piracy laid against these young men, of looting and burning a Scots ship, was the imaginative creation of the Company's embittered secretary, but most men believed it, and some of the few who did not were glad to see the humbling of English pride. This squalid judicial murder was Scotland's last gesture of defiance before it surrendered its political independence."

 

 

Sources:

 

 

Scotland on Sunday: The Story of a Nation Part One, Page 2

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isthmus

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/civil_war_revolution/scotland_darien_01.shtml

http://www.kinnaird.net/darien.htm

 

 

Notes for ANNE OF DENMARK:

"ANNE OF DENMARK (1574-1619), queen consort of King James I of England, was born in 1574, daughter of King Frederick II of Denmark and Norway.   In 1589, at age 15, she married King James (then King James VI of Scotland)  by proxy.   The royal couple proceeded to have eight children.   Their first child, Prince Henry, was born in 1594, followed by daughters Elizabeth (1596) and Margaret (1598), son Charles, later King Charles I of England (1600), son Robert (1602), an unnamed son who died in his infancy (1603), daughter Mary (1605), and lastly daughter Sophia (1606).   Child mortality rate was high in the seventeenth century, a fact even the royalty could not escape - in addition to the unnamed child, Anne lost Margaret at 14 months of age, Robert at the age of 4 months, Mary at 2 years, and one-day-old Sophia-only three made it to adulthood.   It was after Sophia's death that the couple, who had never had much in common, decided to live apart.

 

Although Anne had been brought up as a Lutheran, she had become a Roman Catholic during the 1590s.   When James succeeded to the English throne as James I after the death of Queen Elizabeth I in 1603, James and Anne were crowned together at Windsor Castle, but Anne caused embarrassment by refusing to take Anglican communion.   Anne's Roman Catholic sympathies continued to be a source of embarrassment to King James throughout his reign.

 

Anne devoted herself to court entertainments, spending extravagantly on the production of masques, including Jonson's Masque of Blackness, in which she herself took part as a masquer.   Anne also had a flair for expensive clothing, and costly building projects, which all added to the financial difficulties of James' reign.  The loss of a husband's affections, or financial troubles, however, were nothing compared to the direst loss of Anne's life:  Henry, Prince of Wales, future King of England, met an untimely death in November 1612, at the age of 18. 

 

Some three months later in February 1613, Anne's second child, Elizabeth, wed Frederick, Elector Palatine, in the palace at Whitehall.   In 1616, Anne saw her son Charles created Prince of Wales.   Anne of Denmark passed away on March 4 1619 at Hampton Court Palace, and was buried in Westminster Abbey."

 

       

Children of JAMES STUART and ANNE DENMARK are:

11.              i.    CHARLES11 I, b. 1600, Dunfermline, Scotland; d. 1649.

12.             ii.    ELIZABETH STUART, b. 19 August 1596, Falkland Palace, Fife, Scotland; d. 13 February 1661/62, London.

 

 

Generation No. 11

 

11.  CHARLES11 I (JAMES CHARLES10 STUART, MARY QUEEN OF9 SCOTS, JAMES V OF8 SCOTLAND, JAMES IV OF7, JAMES III OF6, JAMES II OF5, JAMES I KING OF4, ROBERT III KING OF3, ROBERT II KING OF2, WALTER1 STEWART) was born 1600 in Dunfermline, Scotland, and died 1649.

 

Notes for CHARLES I:

"Dunfermline is a town and former Royal Burgh in Fife, Scotland on high ground 3 miles (4.8 km) from the northern shore of the Firth of Forth. According to a 2008 estimate, Dunfermline has a population of 46,430, making it the second-biggest settlement in Fife. Part of the town's name comes from the Gaelic word, "dun" which translates as a fortified hill. The other parts, "ferm" and "lyn" are unclear, although "ferm" may have been an alternative name for the Tower Burn and "lyn", a pool or casade. Together, this may suggest the site of a fortification between the Ferm Burn and the Lyne Burn to the south."

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dunfermline

       

Children of CHARLES I are:

                   i.    MARY12.

                  ii.    CHARLES II, b. 1630; d. 1701.

 

Notes for CHARLES II:

Born a Protestant, converted to Catholisism in 1671.

Crowned King in 1685

 

13.            iii.    JAMES VII &II, b. 1633.

 

 

12.  ELIZABETH11 STUART (JAMES CHARLES10, MARY QUEEN OF9 SCOTS, JAMES V OF8 SCOTLAND, JAMES IV OF7, JAMES III OF6, JAMES II OF5, JAMES I KING OF4, ROBERT III KING OF3, ROBERT II KING OF2, WALTER1 STEWART)14 was born 19 August 1596 in Falkland Palace, Fife, Scotland14, and died 13 February 1661/62 in London.  She married FREDERICK OF BOHEMIA 1613.  He died in Aged 65 Years.

 

Notes for ELIZABETH STUART:

"Elizabeth Stuart (19 August 1596 - 13 February 1662) was, as the wife of Frederick V, Elector Palatine, Electress Palatine and briefly Queen of Bohemia. Due to her husband's short reign in Bohemia, Elizabeth is often referred to as the Winter Queen. She was the eldest daughter of King James VI and I, King of Scotland, England and Ireland, and Anne of Denmark.

With the demise of the Stuart dynasty in 1714, her descendants, the Hanoverian rulers, succeeded to the British Throne."

 

"In total, nine Stewart monarchs ruled just Scotland from 1371 until 1603. After this there was a Union of the Crowns under James VI & I who had become the senior genealogical claimant to The Crown holdings of the extinct House of Tudor. Thus there were six Stewart monarchs who ruled both England and Scotland as well as Ireland (although the later Stuart era was interrupted by an interregnum lasting from 1649-1660, as a result of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms). Additionally, at the foundation of the Kingdom of Great Britain after the Acts of Union, which politically united England and Scotland, the first monarch was Anne of Great Britain. After her death, all the holdings passed to the House of Hanover, under the terms of the Act of Settlement 1701.

 

During the reign of the Stewarts, Scotland developed from a relatively poor and feudal country into a prosperous, fairly modern and centralised state. They ruled during a time in European history of transition from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance. Monarchs such as James IV were known for sponsoring exponents of the Northern Renaissance such as the poet Robert Henryson, and others. After the Stewarts gained control of all of Great Britain, the arts and sciences continued to develop; many of William Shakespeare's best known plays were authored during the Jacobean era, while institutions such as the Royal Society and Royal Mail were established during the reign of Charles II."

 

 

More About ELIZABETH STUART:

Coronation: 6 November 1619, Queen consort of Bohemia

Issue: 9 Children

       

Child of ELIZABETH STUART and FREDERICK BOHEMIA is:

                   i.    SOPHIA12, m. ELECTOR OF HANOVER, 1658.

 

 

Generation No. 12

 

13.  JAMES VII12 &II (CHARLES11 I, JAMES CHARLES10 STUART, MARY QUEEN OF9 SCOTS, JAMES V OF8 SCOTLAND, JAMES IV OF7, JAMES III OF6, JAMES II OF5, JAMES I KING OF4, ROBERT III KING OF3, ROBERT II KING OF2, WALTER1 STEWART) was born 1633.

       

Children of JAMES VII &II are:

                   i.    MARY13.

                  ii.    ANNE MARY, b. 1665.

                 iii.    JAMES FRANCIS, b. 1688; d. 1766.

 

Notes for JAMES FRANCIS:

Old Pretender

 

 

 

Endnotes

 

1.  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_I_of_Scotland.

2.  https://www.google.com.

3.  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_III_of_Scotland.

4.  http://www.educationscotland.gov.uk/scotlandshistory/renaissancereformation/mariedeguise/index.asp.

5.  https://www.google.com.

6.  http://www.educationscotland.gov.uk/scotlandshistory/renaissancereformation/mariedeguise/index.asp.

7.  http://www.marie-stuart.co.uk/parents.htm.

8.  https://www.google.com.

9.  http://www.historynet.com/the-murder-of-lord-darnley.htm.

10.  http://www.jesus-is-lord.com/kingbio.htm.

11.  Scotland on Sunday: The Story of a Nation, Part 1: Union and Enlightment 1690-1780 Page 5.

12.  https://www.google.com.

13.  http://www.luminarium.org/encyclopedia/annedenmark.htm.

14.  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elizabeth_Stuart,_Queen_of_Bohemia.

 

 


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